Planetary Nebula Kohoutek 3-46

Kohoutek 3-46
Kohoutek 3-46: Planetary nebula in Cygnus; 500 mm Cassegrain 5800 mm f/11.4; SBIG STL11K; 90+3*15 min LRGB; Bernese Highlands; © 2005 Radek Chromik


The planetary nebula Kohoutek 3-46 (K 3-46, PK 69+3.1) was discovered in 1964 by the Czechoslovak astronomer Luboš Kohoutek, who also discovered minor planets and comets, including comet Kohoutek, which was visible to the naked eye in 1973. In 1967, together with Luboš Perek, he published a catalog of galactic planetary nebulae.

The designation (PK 69+3.1) goes back to this catalog and is made up of galactic coordinates: 69° galactic longitude, +3° galactic latitude and .1 for the first PN in that defined 1x1° field. [141]

Kohoutek 3-46
Kohoutek 3-46: Kinematic model [338]

Physical Properties

The PN has a well-defined hourglass shape with a prominent equatorial ring and marked waist. The expansion rate is very slow. In the equatorial plane it is less than 3 km/s and in the polar direction about 18 km/s. The age is estimated to be around 20'000 years and the distance to be 2.2 kpc (around 7200 light years). [338]

«Strasbourg-ESO Catalogue of Galactic Planetary Nebulae» Acker et al., 1992 [141]
DesignationsPN G069.2+03.8: K 3-46, PK 69+03.1, ARO 334
Right Ascension (J2000.0)19h 50m 01s
Declination (J2000.0)33° 45' 56"
Dimensions 23." (optical)
DiscovererKOHOUTEK 1964

Finder Chart

The planetary nebula Kohoutek 3-46 (PK 69+3.1) is located in the constellation Cygnus. The best time to observe is April to November, when it is highest at night.

Chart Kohoutek 3-46
Chart created using SkySafari 6 Pro and STScI Digitized Sky Survey. [149, 160]


141Strasbourg-ESO Catalogue of Galactic Planetary Nebulae; A. Acker, F. Ochsenbein, B. Stenholm, R. Tylenda, J. Marcout, C. Schohn; European Southern Observatory; ISBN 3-923524-41-2 (1992); (2021-02-18)
149SkySafari 6 Pro, Simulation Curriculum;
160The STScI Digitized Sky Survey;
338«Kinematical Analysis of a Sample of Bipolar Planetary Nebulae» Martina Dobrinčić, Eva Villaver, Martín A. Guerrero, and Arturo Manchado; Published 2008 May 13; The Astronomical Journal, Volume 135, Number 6; DOI:10.1088/0004-6256/135/6/2199