Planetary Nebula NGC 7354

NGC 7354
NGC 7354: Planetary nebula in Cepheus; 500 mm Cassegrain 3625 mm f/7.2; SBIG STL11K; 340+3*60 min LRGB; Bernese Highlands; © 2015 Radek Chromik [32]


This nebula was discovered on 3 November 1787 by the German-British astronomer William Herschel. He cataloged it as «faint nebula» with entry II 705 and noted: «Pretty bright, small, irregularly round, almost equally bright.» [464] His son John observed the on 9 October 1829, cataloged it as h 2178 and noted: «Bright enough to be noticed and caught in sweeping in full moonlight, with the moon on meridian, pretty gradually brighter in the middle, round, no nucleus seen.» [466] In his «General Catalogue» published 1864 the nebula is listed with the designation GC 4827. [467]

Lord Rosse (or more likely one of his assistants) suspected the nebula to be a planetary in 1861. [486] John L. E. Dreyer added then the nebula as NGC 7354 in his 1888 «New General Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters. [313]

Physical Properties

NGC 7354
NGC 7354: Image taken with the Hubble Space Telescope. © ESA/Hubble & NASA [350]

Winds from the central star are believed to play an important role in the shape of planetary nebulae. The composition of NGC 7354 is relatively easy to distinguish: the PN consists of a spherical outer envelope, an ellipsoidal inner envelope, a collection of bright knots concentrated in the center, and two symmetrical jets shooting gas into the interstellar medium on either side. It is believed that these properties were caused by a companion star of the central star, but its presence has not yet been confirmed. The distance to NGC 7354 is about 4200 light years. [350]

«Strasbourg-ESO Catalogue of Galactic Planetary Nebulae» Acker et al., 1992 [141]
Designations PN G107.8+02.3: NGC 7354, PK 107+02.1, ARO 55, VV 278, VV' 567
Right Ascension (J2000.0) 22h 40m 20s
Declination (J2000.0) +61° 17' 06"
Dimensions 23." (optical)
Distance 1.5 kpc
Radial Velocity -41.0 ± 2.0 km/s
Expansion Velocity 25.0 (O-III) 27. (N-II) km/s
C-Star Designations AG82 445
C-Star Magnitude V: >16.2
Discoverer LORD ROSSE 1862

Finder Chart

The planetary nebula NGC 7354 is located in the constellation Cepheus. The best viewing time is May to December when the constellation is highest in the night sky.

Finder Chart Planetary Nebula NGC 7354
Planetary Nebula NGC 7354 in constellation Cepheus. Charts created using SkySafari 6 Pro and STScI Digitized Sky Survey. Limiting magnitudes: Constellation chart ~6.5 mag, DSS2 close-ups ~20 mag. [149, 160]

Objects Within a Radius of 15°


  • [32] Astrofotografie by Radek, Bernie and Dragan;
  • [141] Strasbourg-ESO Catalogue of Galactic Planetary Nebulae; A. Acker, F. Ochsenbein, B. Stenholm, R. Tylenda, J. Marcout, C. Schohn; European Southern Observatory; ISBN 3-923524-41-2 (1992);;
  • [149] SkySafari 6 Pro, Simulation Curriculum;
  • [160] The STScI Digitized Sky Survey;
  • [313] «A New General Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars, being the Catalogue of the late Sir John F.W. Herschel, Bart., revised, corrected, and enlarged» Dreyer, J. L. E. (1888); Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society. 49: 1–237; Bibcode:1888MmRAS..49....1D
  • [350] Smoky shells; (2021-05-16)
  • [464] «Catalogue of a second thousand of new nebulae and clusters of stars; with a few introductory remarks on the construction of the heavens» William Herschel, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 1 January 1789; DOI:10.1098/rstl.1789.0021
  • [466] «Observations of nebulæ and clusters of stars, made at Slough, with a twenty-feet reflector, between the years 1825 and 1833» John Frederick William Herschel, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 1 January 1833, Pages: 359-505; DOI:10.1098/rstl.1833.0021
  • [467] «Catalogue of nebulae and clusters of stars» John Frederick William Herschel, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 1 January 1864; DOI:10.1098/rstl.1864.0001;
  • [486] «On the construction of specula of six-feet aperture; and a selection from the observations of nebulæ made with them» William Parsons; Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Volume 151, published 1 January 1861; DOI:10.1098/rstl.1861.0029