Constellation Gemini (Twins)

Gemini
Gemini: IAU Constellation Map [150]

Properties

The constellation Gemini is located northeast of Orion and has roughly the shape of a long rectangle towards Orion. The two brightest stars Castor (α Geminorum) and Pollux (β Geminorum) are very noticeable. Pollux is the southerly and lighter of the two. The twin stars Castor and Pollux together with Capella (α Aurigae), Aldebaran (α Tauri), Rigel (β Orionis), Sirius (α Canis Majoris) and Procyon (α Canis Minoris) form the winter hexagon. The constellation area is 514 square degrees and the center culminates around midnight on January 4th. [9, 15]

Stars with Proper Names:

  • α Gem: Castor, Apollo
  • β Gem: Pollux, Hercules
  • γ Gem: Alhena
  • δ Gem: Wasat, Wesat
  • ε Gem: Mebsuta, Melucta, Meboula
  • ζ Gem: Mekbuda
  • η Gem: Propus, Praepes, Tejat Prior
  • ι Gem: Propus
  • μ Gem: Tejat Posterior, Calx, Pish Pai
  • ξ Gem: Alzirr
  • 1 Gem: Propus
Data for constellation Gemini [150]
IAU NameGemini
IAU GenitiveGeminorum
IAU Abbr.Gem
English NameTwins
Season (47° N)October … April
Right Ascension06h 00m 30s … 08h 07m 58s
Declination+09° 48' 35" … +35° 23' 26"
Area514 deg2
Neighbours (N↻)Aur, Tau, Ori, Mon, CMi, Cnc, Lyn

Deep-Sky Object Descriptions

Mythology and History

Castor and Pollux were known as twins in many cultures. Sometimes they were also called The Dioscuri or the sons of Zeus, the king of the gods. Her mother was the beautiful Leda, who appeared to Zeus in the form of a swan. Pollux had an immortal soul; at his death he was granted a home on Mount Olympus. Castor, however, was mortal.

Some said Castor's father was not the mighty Zeus but the earthly king Tyndareus of Sparta. Thus, like the rest of humanity, Castor was destined to be the ultimate resting place of the underworld of Hades. This world of death was not a place of punishment as in the Christian imagination, but a place of incessant indifference and boredom.

Castor excelled in horsemanship, while Pollux excelled in boxing and fighting battles. It was said that the two were as alike as only twins could be. Both married the pretty daughters of a king of Sparta.

A sad day came when a lance pierced Castor's heart during a riot. Pollux understood that his twin brother would now stay in Hades forever. He asked Zeus to send him to the underworld with him. Zeus was not able to grant this request. However, he promised Pollux that he and his brother Castor would spend half of their time on Mount Olympus and the other half in Hades. The two were then given a place under the stars of the firmament.

The Blackfoot Indians used the same star figure to tell of two infants whose mother was killed by a wandering medicine man: The medicine man placed one infant next to the ashes of the fire in the tipi and named it Chief of the Ashes. He put the other behind a buffalo hide and called him the one behind it. The two got magical powers as they grew up to be men. When they died, they went to heaven as twins.

The Chinese associated Castor and Pollux with the two mystical elements of the universe. These stars, it was said, represent yin and yang - the embodiment of opposites in the world: day and night, light and darkness, good and bad. Yin is said to be female while Yang is male. Yin represents the shadow and Yang represents the light. Yin is winter, Yang is summer, and so on. In this philosophy, one element has no meaning without the other. [86]

Catalogs

Yale Bright Star Catalogue, 5th Revised Ed. (Hoffleit+, 1991) [154]
HR B F RA [hms] Dec [dms] vMag spType dMag Sep ["]
2134106 04 07.2+23 15 484.16 G7III 0.40.2
2173306 09 44.0+23 06 485.75 B2.5Ib e2.50.7
2185506 11 32.3+24 25 135.80 K0III
2197606 12 19.1+22 54 306.39 M1-2Ia-Iab
2216η706 14 52.6+22 30 243.28 M3III 2.00.0
2230806 16 19.0+23 58 126.08 G8III 0.00.1
2240906 16 58.7+23 44 276.25 B3Ib
2286μ1306 22 57.6+22 30 492.88 M3IIIab e8.1121.7
23301606 27 56.6+20 29 466.22 A2V s
2343ν1806 28 57.8+20 12 444.15 B6IIIe 1.70.2
23711906 31 37.4+15 54 126.40 R A8V
2421γ2406 37 42.7+16 23 571.93 A0IV 9.0143.5
24532506 41 21.0+28 11 476.42 G5Ib 3.955.9
24662606 42 24.3+17 38 435.21 A2V
2473ε2706 43 55.9+25 07 522.98 G8Ib e6.0110.3
24783006 43 59.3+13 13 404.49 K0IIICN1Ca1 8.427.2
24802806 44 45.5+28 58 155.44 K4III
2484ξ3106 45 17.4+12 53 443.36 F5III
24893206 45 54.2+12 41 376.46 A9III
25193306 49 49.8+16 12 105.85 B7III 7.327.5
25253506 50 25.5+13 24 485.65 gK3
25293606 51 33.0+21 45 405.27 A2V 8.811.3
2540θ3406 52 47.3+33 57 403.60 A3III 7.978.7
25643806 54 38.7+13 10 404.65 F0Vp 2.97.0
25693706 55 18.6+25 22 325.73 G0V
26013906 58 47.4+26 04 526.10 F7V 6.028.8
26054006 59 27.9+25 54 516.40 B8III 0.00.0
26154107 00 15.8+16 04 445.68 K3Ib
2630ω4207 02 24.8+24 12 555.18 G5IIa-Ib
2650ζ4307 04 06.5+20 34 133.79 F7-G3Ib v0.00.1
26594407 05 18.4+22 38 146.02 B8Vn
26844507 08 22.0+15 55 515.44 G8III 5.410.4
2697τ4607 11 08.4+30 14 434.41 K2-III 6.51.9
27004707 11 23.1+26 51 245.78 A4IV
27064807 12 26.4+24 07 425.85 F5III-IV
27175107 13 22.3+16 09 325.00 M4IIIab 5.2149.2
27255207 14 41.9+24 53 065.82 M1III v6.323.9
27385307 15 57.1+27 53 515.71 M1IIIa
2763λ5407 18 05.6+16 32 253.58 A3V 1.00.0
2777δ5507 20 07.4+21 58 563.53 F2IV 2.00.2
27955607 21 56.8+20 26 375.10 M0IIIab 7.416.5
28085707 23 28.5+25 03 025.03 G8III
28105807 23 28.2+22 56 436.02 R A1V
28165907 24 33.4+27 38 175.76 g:F0
2821ι6007 25 43.6+27 47 533.79 G9IIIbHdel -1
28376107 26 56.3+20 15 265.93 F2Vn
28466307 27 44.4+21 26 425.22 F5V+F5V 0.50.0
2852ρ6207 29 06.7+31 47 044.18 F0V 3.4220.4
28576407 29 20.4+28 07 055.05 A4V
28616507 29 48.7+27 54 585.01 K2III 8.512.8
28866807 33 36.5+15 49 365.25 A1Vn 1.60.2
2890α6607 34 36.0+31 53 192.88 A2Vm 0.92.0
2891α6607 34 36.0+31 53 181.98 A1V 0.92.0
2905υ6907 35 55.3+26 53 454.06 M0III-IIIb e9.046.1
29247007 38 32.8+35 02 555.56 K0III 4.6159.9
2930ο7107 39 09.9+34 35 034.90 F3III
29387407 39 28.6+17 40 295.05 K5IIIFe-0.5 0.00.0
2973σ7507 43 18.7+28 53 014.28 K1III e6.5182.2
29837607 44 06.9+25 47 035.31 K4-5III
2985κ7707 44 26.8+24 23 533.57 G8IIIa 5.87.1
2990β7807 45 18.9+28 01 341.14 K0IIIb e10.2201.1
29917907 45 09.3+20 18 596.33 R A1V
30038107 46 07.4+18 30 364.88 K4III-IIIb 0.00.1
3013π8007 47 30.3+33 24 565.14 M1IIIa 5.221.0
30218207 48 33.6+23 08 286.18 R G2III+A4V 0.10.3
3067φ8307 53 29.8+26 45 574.97 A3V
30868507 55 39.9+19 53 025.35 A0V s
3149χ08 03 31.1+27 47 394.94 K1.5III 6.078.6

Revised+Historic NGC/IC, Version 22/9, © Dr. Wolfgang Steinicke [277]
Planetary Nebulae
NameRADecTypebMagvMagDimDreyer DescriptionIdentification, Remarks
NGC 237107 25 33.9+29 29 18PN13.011.21.03B, S, R, bMN, p of D nebNGC 2372, PK 189+19.1, CS=15.5, part of one PN
NGC 239207 29 10.8+20 54 45PN9.99.10.9B, S, R, * 9 M, * 8 nf 100"PK 197+17.1, CS=10.5, Eskimo nebula
Galactic Nebulae
NameRADecTypebMagvMagDimDreyer DescriptionIdentification, Remarks
IC 44306 16 36.0+22 31 00SNR12.050 × 40F, narrow, curvedLBN 844, VMT 9, Sh2-248
IC 44406 22 30.0+22 52 00EN48 × 38Neb, * 9.5 invLBN 845, DG 101
Open Clusters
NameRADecTypebMagvMagDimDreyer DescriptionIdentification, Remarks
NGC 212906 01 06.5+23 19 04III3p6.76Cl, pL, 40 or 50 st 8…15OCL 467
NGC 215806 07 25.6+24 05 46II3r8.65Cl, pS, mC, vRi, irr Δ, st eSOCL 468
NGC 216806 09 00.0+24 21 00III2m5.125Cl, vL, cRi, pC, st 9...16M 35, OCL 466
NGC 226606 43 19.2+26 58 10II2m9.55Cl, pS, eC, Ri, st 11…15OCL 471
NGC 230406 55 11.8+17 59 19II1p10.03Cl, pL, Ri, mC, st vSOCL 484
NGC 233107 06 59.8+27 15 42IV1p8.519Cl, L, vlC, S Cl invOCL 475
NGC 235507 16 59.2+13 45 00II2p9.78Cl, pS, pRi, mC, st 15…16NGC 2356, OCL 496
NGC 239507 27 12.8+13 36 30III1p8.015Cl, pRi, COCL 502
NGC 242007 38 23.8+21 34 27I2r8.36Cl, cL, Ri, C, st 11…18OCL 488
IC 215706 04 49.8+24 03 21III2p8.45Cl, SOCL 465
Galaxies
NameRADecTypebMagvMagDimDreyer DescriptionIdentification, Remarks
NGC 227406 47 17.4+33 34 03E113.112.11.2 × 1.1F, S, bMUGC 3541, MCG 6-15-8, CGCG 175-15, KCPG 118A
NGC 227506 47 17.9+33 35 57Sab14.013.21.3 × 0.9eF, vSUGC 3542, MCG 6-15-7, CGCG 175-16, KCPG 118B
NGC 228806 50 51.9+33 27 45E515.314.40.4 × 0.2cF, S, R, (β of Lord R's diag)MCG 6-15-11, CGCG 175-17
NGC 228906 50 53.5+33 28 44S014.213.11.1 × 0.6eF, vS, (= γ)UGC 3560, MCG 6-15-10, CGCG 175-18, NPM1G +33.0089
NGC 229006 50 56.9+33 26 15Sa14.213.21.2 × 0.7F, S, gbM (= α)UGC 3562, MCG 6-15-12, CGCG 175-19
NGC 229106 50 58.6+33 31 30S014.213.21 × 0.8eF, vS, (= δ)CGCG 175-20, MCG 6-15-13, NPM1G +33.0090
NGC 229406 51 11.3+33 31 38E614.913.80.8 × 0.4eeF, (ε of Lord R's diag)MCG 6-15-14, CGCG 175-21, IRAS 06478+3335
NGC 233307 08 21.2+35 10 12Sa14.213.31 × 0.7vF, S, R, bMUGC 3689, MCG 6-16-20, CGCG 176-18, IRAS 07050+3515
NGC 233907 08 20.3+18 46 46SBbc12.511.82.7 × 2pB, pL, R, glbMUGC 3693, MCG 3-19-2, CGCG 85-40, CGCG 86-5, IRAS 07054+1851
NGC 234107 09 12.0+20 36 12Sc/P13.813.20.8 × 0.8vF, vSUGC 3708, MCG 3-19-3, CGCG 86-6, KCPG 125A, IRAS 07062+2041
NGC 234207 09 18.1+20 38 13Sc13.112.61.4 × 1.3pF, S, lE, vlbMUGC 3709, MCG 3-19-4, CGCG 86-7, KCPG 125B, IRAS 07063+2043
NGC 235707 17 40.9+23 21 23Sc14.013.33.6 × 0.5eF, L, mE, bM, F st invUGC 3782, MCG 4-17-14, CGCG 116-46, FGC 619, IRAS 07146+2326
NGC 236507 22 22.3+22 05 00SBa13.312.42.8 × 1.4vF, pS, R, psbMUGC 3821, MCG 4-18-8, CGCG 117-20
NGC 237007 25 01.5+23 47 01SBc14.413.70.8 × 0.5eF, vS, EUGC 3835, MCG 4-18-15, CGCG 117-36, IRAS 07220+2352
NGC 237307 26 36.9+33 49 27Sbc14.613.80.6 × 0.5eF, vS (ζ in Ld R's diag)UGC 3848, MCG 6-17-4, CGCG 177-14, IRAS 07233+3355, KUG 0723+339, ARAK 131, NPM1G +33.0105
NGC 237507 27 09.4+33 49 57SBb14.413.61.3 × 1eF, vS, h 446 f 17s, 1' s (ε)UGC 3854, MCG 6-17-5, CGCG 177-17, NPM1G +33.0106, IRAS 07238+3356
NGC 237607 26 35.9+23 04 24Sbc15.214.40.6 × 0.6eF, vSMCG 4-18-17, CGCG 117-39, IRAS 07235+2310
NGC 237907 27 26.2+33 48 43S014.513.50.9 × 0.8vF, vS (δ)UGC 3857, MCG 6-17-6, CGCG 177-18, ARAK 132, CGCG 177-18, NPM1G +33.0107
NGC 238507 28 28.2+33 50 17S?14.813.91 × 0.7vF, vS, R, bMMCG 6-17-8, CGCG 177-20
NGC 238807 28 53.5+33 49 08S14.613.81 × 0.6vF, S, R, bMUGC 3870, MCG 6-17-10, CGCG 177-22, IRAS 07256+3355
NGC 238907 29 04.8+33 51 39SBc13.412.92 × 1.4vF, S, R, psbMUGC 3872, MCG 6-17-11, CGCG 177-24, KUG 0725+339
NGC 239307 30 04.9+34 01 40Sc14.714.01.2 × 0.8eF, pS, lE, dif, r?UGC 3884, MCG 6-17-14, CGCG 177-27, KUG 0726+341, IRAS 07267+3407
NGC 2398 107 30 16.2+24 29 17S?14.813.90.4 × 0.3vF, eS, bM, r ?MCG 4-18-23, CGCG 117-48
NGC 2398 207 30 13.6+24 29 29D R15.514.90.5 × 0.5vF, eS, bM, r ?MCG 4-18-22, CGCG 117-46
NGC 2405 107 32 13.9+25 54 22S14.914.10.5 × 0.3vF, S, iRMCG 4-18-26, CGCG 117-51, VV 643
NGC 2405 207 32 15.1+25 54 21E015.514.50.3 × 0.3vF, S, iRMCG 4-18-26, CGCG 117-51, VV 643
NGC 240607 31 47.7+18 17 19E?15.214.20.7 × 0.6eF, eS, vSN ?MCG 3-19-21, CGCG 86-41, CGCG 87-2, NPM1G +18.0161
NGC 240707 31 56.6+18 20 01E-S014.413.41.1 × 1eF, eS, vSN ?UGC 3896, MCG 3-20-1, CGCG 86-42, CGCG 87-3, NPM1G +18.0162
NGC 241007 35 02.2+32 49 21SBb13.813.02.4 × 0.7eF, vS, sev vF st invUGC 3917, MCG 5-18-23, CGCG 147-43, CGCG 177-35, IRAS 07318+3255
NGC 241107 34 36.4+18 16 55E?14.813.80.9 × 0.5* 14 m slightly nebsUGC 3914, MCG 3-20-5, CGCG 87-13
NGC 241807 36 37.4+17 53 02E013.212.21.8 × 1.8vF, eS, bMUGC 3931, MCG 3-20-8, CGCG 87-17, Arp 165
NGC 243507 44 13.4+31 39 02Sa13.712.82.2 × 0.5F, S, lbMUGC 3996, MCG 5-19-2, CGCG 147-62, CGCG 148-4
NGC 244907 47 20.4+26 55 50Sab14.213.41.3 × 0.6eF, eS, R, bM, rUGC 4026, MCG 5-19-7, CGCG 148-20
NGC 245007 47 32.2+27 01 10Sbc15.514.70.9 × 0.2eF, vS, S * invMCG 5-19-8, CGCG 148-22
NGC 245407 50 34.9+16 22 09S14.613.80.8 × 0.3vF, eS, R, bMUGC 4053, MCG 3-20-15, CGCG 87-44, ARAK 143
NGC 248007 57 10.6+23 46 47SBcd14.513.81.3 × 0.7vF, E npsf, close np h 473UGC 4116, MCG 4-19-9, CGCG 118-26, KCPG 148A, IRAS 07541+2354
NGC 248107 57 13.7+23 46 03S0-a13.913.01.4 × 0.5F, S, lE, bM, erUGC 4118, MCG 4-19-10, CGCG 118-27, KCPG 148B
NGC 248607 57 56.5+25 09 40Sa14.213.31.7 × 0.9vF, S, psbMUGC 4123, MCG 4-19-11, CGCG 118-29, KCPG 150A
NGC 248707 58 20.3+25 08 57SBb13.212.52.7 × 2.1vF, S, gbMUGC 4126, MCG 4-19-12, CGCG 118-30, KCPG 150B, IRAS 07553+2517
NGC 249007 59 17.9+27 04 40C15.614.60.6 × 0.4vF, S, R, * 13 1' f, p of 2MCG 5-19-27, CGCG 148-78
NGC 249207 59 29.7+27 01 35E-S013.712.71 × 1vF, S, R, bM, f of 2UGC 4138, MCG 5-19-28, CGCG 148-80
NGC 249807 59 38.7+24 59 00SBa14.313.41.1 × 0.8vF, vS, R, bMNUGC 4142, MCG 4-19-15, CGCG 118-34, IRAS 07566+2507
IC 45406 51 06.2+12 55 21SBab14.213.41.2 × 0.7eeF, S, e difficUGC 3570, MCG 2-18-2, IRAS 06482+1258
IC 47407 46 07.3+26 30 16S?15.214.41 × 0.3pB, vS, difMCG 4-19-1, CGCG 148-12
IC 47507 47 09.2+30 29 20S15.314.50.8 × 0.5vF, vS, difMCG 5-19-5, CGCG 148-17, ARAK 140
IC 47607 47 16.4+26 57 03SB?15.614.80.5 × 0.3vS, vF, lbM, difficMCG 5-19-6, CGCG 148-18
IC 47707 52 06.9+23 29 01S015.414.40.9 × 0.9F, pL, R, difMCG 4-19-6, CGCG 118-16, NPM1G +23.0145
IC 47807 53 41.6+26 29 32S15.214.40.6 × 0.3vF, vS, difCGCG 148-55
IC 47907 54 22.1+27 00 26SBc15.414.70.7 × 0.6pF, vS, RMCG 5-19-20, CGCG 148-58
IC 48007 55 23.1+26 44 32Sbc15.014.21.7 × 0.3vF, pL, E ns, difUGC 4096, CGCG 148-62, IRAS 07523+2652
IC 48107 59 02.8+24 09 37Sbc15.214.41 × 0.2vF, vS, difUGC 4130, MCG 4-19-13, CGCG 118-31
IC 48207 59 47.3+25 21 22S15.314.50.7 × 0.4vF, S, dif, difficMCG 4-19-16, CGCG 118-35, IRAS 07567+2529
IC 48408 00 01.0+26 39 57Sa15.514.60.6 × 0.3F, vS, R, bMCGCG 148-84
IC 48508 00 19.8+26 42 06Sa15.414.51.2 × 0.3vF, vS, R, sbMUGC 4156, CGCG 148-88, IRAS 07572+2650
IC 48608 00 21.1+26 36 48SBa14.613.70.9 × 0.7F, S, dif, gbMUGC 4155, MCG 4-19-18, CGCG 148-87, IRAS 07572+2645
IC 217607 07 31.8+32 28 13S14.914.10.9 × 0.4vF, vS, R, stellMCG 5-17-11, CGCG 146-25, NPM1G +32.0128
IC 217807 07 37.6+32 30 47S15.815.00.4 × 0.2vF, vS, R, bMNCGCG 146-26, NPM1G +32.0129
IC 218007 11 19.5+26 22 15Sab14.413.61.1 × 0.8F, S, iF, difUGC 3727, CGCG 116-27
IC 218107 13 10.3+18 59 47Sab14.413.60.9 × 0.5F, S, R, stellUGC 3744, MCG 3-19-5, CGCG 86-8, NPM1G +19.0136
IC 218207 14 11.0+18 56 42S15.815.00.5 × 0.5vF, vS, dif, * 12 att
IC 218507 23 16.1+32 29 41Sc15.114.40.6 × 0.4F, S, RMCG 5-18-8, CGCG 177-4, CGCG 147-15, IRAS 07200+3235, ARAK 129, KUG 0720+325
IC 218607 22 43.1+21 30 49S14.713.90.9 × 0.6F, S, R, gbM, rIC 2188, MCG 4-18-11, CGCG 117-26, NPM1G +21.0156
IC 218707 22 43.3+21 28 58E-S014.913.90.4 × 0.4F, S, R, dif, * 11.5 v nrMCG 4-18-10, CGCG 117-25
IC 219107 30 17.4+24 19 42S015.114.10.9 × 0.7F, vS, R, stellMCG 4-18-24, CGCG 117-47, NPM1G +24.0129
IC 219207 33 19.8+31 33 12C16.015.00.3 × 0.3F, vS, R, * 14 nearly in cont
IC 219307 33 23.6+31 29 00Sb14.213.41.5 × 0.9Close p * 10m [? = J. 1001]UGC 3902, MCG 5-18-18, CGCG 147-37, IRAS 07301+3135
IC 219407 33 40.2+31 20 04S?14.813.91.1 × 0.3F, S, R, gbM, rMCG 5-18-20, CGCG 147-39
IC 219607 34 09.7+31 24 22E213.712.71.4 × 1.1F, S, pR, gbM, r, 3 st 2' pUGC 3910, MCG 5-18-21, CGCG 147-40, NPM1G +31.0106
IC 2197 107 34 18.9+31 20 14S16.215.40.4 × 0.4vvF
IC 2197 207 34 19.5+31 20 18C17.016.00.2 × 0.2vvF
IC 219807 34 11.1+23 57 59E015.114.10.4 × 0.4F, S, R, gbM, rCGCG 117-54
IC 219907 34 55.6+31 16 33SBc13.913.21.1 × 0.6F, SUGC 3915, MCG 5-18-22, CGCG 147-42, IRAS 07317+3123
IC 220107 36 16.8+33 07 23Sa14.914.01.3 × 0.3F, vS, R, gbM, rUGC 3926, MCG 6-17-20, CGCG 177-36, NPM1G +33.0110
IC 220307 40 33.6+34 13 48SBc14.313.61.2 × 1F, S, R, gbM, rUGC 3958, MCG 6-17-25, CGCG 177-42, KUG 0737+343, IRAS 07373+3420
IC 220407 41 18.1+34 13 53SBab15.815.01.1 × 0.9F, vS, R, eFN, rUGC 3965, MCG 6-17-26, CGCG 177-43, IRAS 07380+3420
IC 220507 46 54.5+26 52 22S14.914.10.5 × 0.3F, vS, neb D *CGCG 148-15, NPM1G +26.0122
IC 220707 49 50.8+33 57 45Sc15.214.52 × 0.3vF, vS, dif, * 15 v nrUGC 4040, MCG 6-17-29, CGCG 177-49, FGC 664, IRAS 07466+3405
IC 220807 52 07.9+27 29 03S015.014.01 × 0.7F, S, R, difMCG 5-19-19, CGCG 148-53
IC 221107 57 45.6+32 33 31Sa14.613.70.8 × 0.4pB, S, R, FN, rUGC 4119, MCG 5-19-23, CGCG 178-10, NPM1G +32.0155, IRAS 07546+3241
IC 221207 58 57.1+32 36 46S15.314.50.5 × 0.5F, pL, vlbM, difMCG 5-19-24, CGCG 178-13, NPM1G +32.0157
IC 221307 59 06.5+27 27 52Sb15.314.50.8 × 0.6F, S, R, lbMNMCG 5-19-25, CGCG 148-76, NPM1G +27.0182

References

9«Drehbare Sternkarte SIRIUS» von H. Suter-Haug; Hallwag-Verlag, Bern
15«Hartung's Astronomical Objects for Southern Telescopes» by David Malin and David J. Frew; Melbourne University Press 1995; ISBN 0-522-84553-3
86The Starry Sky: Gemini by Deborah Byrd; Astronomy 1/96, p.64
150IAU: The Constellations, 11. Oktober 2020; iau.org/public/themes/constellations
154Yale Bright Star Catalog, 15. Oktober 2020; tdc-www.harvard.edu/catalogs/bsc5.html
277«Historische Deep-Sky Kataloge» von Dr. Wolfgang Steinicke; klima-luft.de/steinicke (2021-02-17)