Constellation Lyra (Lyre)

Lyra
Lyra: IAU Constellation Map [150]

Properties

The constellation lies between Cygnus and Hercules. Lyra is a small, but striking and memorable constellation with an area of 286 square degrees, as it has the fifth brightest star Wega, which forms the summer triangle together with Atair (α Aquilae) and Deneb (α Cygni). Southeast of Wega is a striking parallelogram made up of four stars. To the north is the four-fold star ε1 / ε2 Lyrae, whose two double components, separated by 208 ", can be separated with the naked eye on a clear, calm night and thus serve as a good test for visual acuity. In the telescope, the two double stars turn out to be double stars again , which results in a four-fold star system The center of the constellation culminates around midnight on July 2nd. [9, 15]

Stars with Proper Names:

  • α Lyr: Vega, Wega, Fidis, Harp Star
  • β Lyr: Sheliak, Shelyak, Shiliak
  • γ Lyr: Sulafat, Sulaphat
  • η Lyr: Aladfar
  • μ Lyr: Alathfar, Al Athfar
Data for constellation Lyra [150]
IAU NameLyra
IAU GenitiveLyrae
IAU Abbr.Lyr
English NameLyre
Season (47° N)February … December
Right Ascension18h 13m 52s … 19h 28m 29s
Declination+25° 39' 51" … +47° 42' 52"
Area286 deg2
Neighbours (N↻)Dra, Her, Vul, Cyg

Deep-Sky Object Descriptions

Mythology and History

In Greek mythology, Hermes was the son of Zeus. He wore a winged hat and wing shoes. He was the protector of traders and thieves and the master in every art of deception. It was he who invented the lyre. When he was still a child he saw a turtle grazing in the grass. He carried her home, grazed her, took her shell, pulled a cowhide over it, stretched seven strings of sheep intestine over a bridge and let it sound.

This lyre later came into the possession of Apollon, who finally passed it on to his son Orpheus, who was a mighty singer and wanted to woo Eurydice. Hymenaeus, the god of marriage, came to marry them, but bad omens made the future seem dark. When the newlywed Eurydice was walking in the garden, she was bitten by a snake, collapsed and died.

Orpheus descended into the underworld, playing on his lyre and singing along with it. He wanted to bring his wife back to life. He penetrated through the multitudes of airy structures and the shapes beyond the grave to Hades, the ruler of the underworld. Orpheus sang of the injustice of his wife's death and asked for her release. While he was singing to the sound of his strings, the bloodless souls began to weep, Tantalus no longer snapped for escaping water, Ixion's wheel stood still, the vultures no longer chopped on Tityo's liver, the Danaids carried no jugs and Sisyphus rested on his boulder . At that time, so the legend goes, tears wet the cheeks of the furies for the first time because the song touched them. Neither Hades' wife, Persephone, nor himself could refuse the supplicant's request. They called Eurydice. She stayed with the recently arrived shadows and walked slowly along because of the wound. Orpheus took her by the hand and was instructed not to turn his eyes until he had left the valley of the dead, otherwise the gift would be revoked.

Orpheus and Eurydice silently climbed the steep path to the upper world, for it was difficult to find in the thick, pitch-black darkness. Already they were not far from the border of the upper world, but Orpheus could no longer hear his wife's footsteps. Then he turned around, afraid that it might already be gone. But there stood Eurydice, more beautiful than before. As she disappeared, she stretched out her arms, longing to embrace Orpheus and to be embraced, but the unfortunate woman only reaches into the escaping air. When she died for the second time, she did not let a word of complaint about her husband be heard - what else could she complain about but his love for her? She breathed one last farewell, barely audible to his ears, and sank back to where she had come from. [20, 69]

According to another legend, the lyre was owned by the Greek poet Arion from Lesbos around 600 BC. He also knew how to play his instrument in an inimitable way.

According to the story, the constellation Lyra, Lyra, Cithara (four-stringed zither), Orphei, Orphica, Mercurialis, Mercurii is named. The names Marina (emerged from the sea), Testudo (lid animal, turtle) and Belua aqatica (water animal) are reminiscent of Hermes' (Mercury's) handicraft work, in which he covered a turtle shell with cowhide and stretched gut strings over it. [20] The constellation has also been interpreted as an eagle or vulture. [7, 20]

Catalogs

Yale Bright Star Catalogue, 5th Revised Ed. (Hoffleit+, 1991) [154]
HR B F RA [hms] Dec [dms] vMag spType dMag Sep ["]
6872κ118 19 51.7+36 03 524.33 K2IIIabCN0.5
6903μ218 24 13.8+39 30 265.12 A3IVn
7001α318 36 56.3+38 47 010.03 A0Va 10.462.8
7051ε1418 44 20.4+39 40 125.06 H A4V 0.0209.3
7052ε1418 44 20.3+39 40 166.02 H F1V 0.0209.3
7053ε2518 44 22.9+39 36 475.14 H A8Vn 0.0209.3
7054ε2518 44 22.9+39 36 465.37 H F0Vn 0.0209.3
7056ζ1618 44 46.4+37 36 184.36 A4m v1.443.7
7057ζ2718 44 48.2+37 35 405.73 F0IV v1.443.7
7100ν1818 49 45.9+32 48 465.91 B3IV 5.958.7
7102ν2918 49 52.9+32 33 035.25 A3V 7.819.0
7106β1018 50 04.8+33 21 463.45 B8IIpe 5.245.7
7131δ11118 53 43.6+36 58 185.58 B2.5V 3.7174.6
7139δ21218 54 30.2+36 53 564.30 M4II 7.086.2
71571318 55 20.1+43 56 464.04 M5III
7178γ1418 58 56.6+32 41 223.24 B9III 8.3176.9
7192λ1519 00 00.9+32 08 444.93 K2.5IIIBa0.5
72151619 01 26.4+46 56 055.01 A7V 6.3200.
72611719 07 25.6+32 30 065.23 F0V 4.33.5
7262ι1819 07 18.1+36 06 015.28 B6IV
72831919 11 46.0+31 17 005.98 B9pSi
7298η2019 13 45.5+39 08 464.39 B2.5IV 4.028.3
7314θ2119 16 22.1+38 08 014.36 K0+II 4.7100.2

Revised+Historic NGC/IC, Version 22/9, © Dr. Wolfgang Steinicke [277]
Planetary Nebulae
NameRADecTypebMagvMagDimDreyer DescriptionIdentification, Remarks
NGC 672018 53 35.1+33 01 47PN9.78.83 × 2.4!!!, annular, B, pL, cE (in Lyra)M 57, PK 63+13.1, CS=14.8, Ring nebula
NGC 676519 11 06.5+30 32 47PN13.112.90.67F, S, EPK 62+9.1, CS=16.0
Open Clusters
NameRADecTypebMagvMagDimDreyer DescriptionIdentification, Remarks
NGC 679119 20 52.7+37 46 27II3r9.510vF (Auw 45)OCL 142
Globular Clusters
NameRADecTypebMagvMagDimDreyer DescriptionIdentification, Remarks
NGC 677919 16 35.5+30 11 07X8.48.8globular, B, L, iR, gvmCM, rrr, st 11…14M 56, GCL 110
Galaxies
NameRADecTypebMagvMagDimDreyer DescriptionIdentification, Remarks
NGC 660618 14 41.3+43 16 07Sb14.713.90.9 × 0.7vF, S, R, gbM, vf * invUGC 11174, MCG 7-37-25, CGCG 227-21
NGC 661218 16 10.9+36 04 45C15.214.20.7 × 0.7eeF, eS, R, v difficMCG 6-40-11, CGCG 200-14, 1ZW 204
NGC 664018 28 08.1+34 18 09Sc14.213.51.1 × 0.8vF, S, R, vlbMUGC 11247, MCG 6-40-18, CGCG 200-21, IRAS 18263+3416
NGC 664618 29 38.7+39 51 54Sa13.512.61.6 × 1.3F, S, iFUGC 11258, MCG 7-38-8, CGCG 228-10
NGC 665718 33 01.5+34 03 39SBc14.213.51 × 0.6vF, vS, sbMUGC 11271, MCG 6-41-3, CGCG 201-8, IRAS 18312+3401
NGC 666218 34 11.2+32 03 53SBab14.513.71.6 × 0.5F * in vF, vS, lE nebyUGC 11280, MCG 5-44-3, CGCG 173-7, IRAS 18323+3201
NGC 666318 33 33.7+40 02 57Sc14.613.91 × 0.9eeF, pS, R, v difficUGC 11276, MCG 7-38-11, CGCG 228-14, IRAS 18319+4000
NGC 666518 34 30.0+30 43 15Sc14.613.91.1 × 0.6vF, vSMCG 5-44-4, CGCG 173-10, IRAS 18325+3040
NGC 667118 37 26.2+26 25 03S13.712.81.5 × 1.3vF, vS, R, mbMUGC 11299, MCG 4-44-6, CGCG 143-6, IRAS 18354+2622
NGC 667518 37 26.2+40 03 28Sbc13.312.51.8 × 1.3vF, E, 45"UGC 11305, MCG 7-38-13, CGCG 228-19, IRAS 18357+4000
NGC 668518 39 58.6+39 58 56E-S014.413.41.1 × 0.9eeF, vS, R, v diffic, sp of 2UGC 11317, MCG 7-38-15, CGCG 228-21, NPM1G +39.0492
NGC 668618 40 06.9+40 08 17C15.714.70.9 × 0.8eeF, eS, R, v diffic, nf of 2MCG 7-38-17, CGCG 228-22, NPM1G +40.0489
NGC 668818 40 39.9+36 17 22S0-a13.512.61.6 × 1.3F, pS, R, bMUGC 11324, MCG 6-41-15, CGCG 201-27
NGC 669218 41 41.5+34 50 39E-S014.213.21 × 0.7vF, vS, irr E, sev vF st invUGC 11330, MCG 6-41-18, CGCG 201-33, KAZ 491
NGC 669518 42 42.8+40 22 02SBb14.313.51.1 × 0.7vF, S, irrE ns, vlbMUGC 11340, MCG 7-38-18, CGCG 228-23, KARA 858, IRAS 18410+4018
NGC 670018 46 04.3+32 16 46SBc13.813.11.4 × 1eF, lE, dif, iRUGC 11351, MCG 5-44-10, CGCG 173-26, IRAS 18441+3213
NGC 670218 46 57.6+45 42 22E213.212.21.9 × 1.5pF, S, lEUGC 11354, MCG 8-34-19, CGCG 255-13
NGC 670318 47 18.9+45 33 03E-S012.311.32.7 × 2.5B, S, R, mbMUGC 11356, MCG 8-34-20, CGCG 255-14
NGC 671018 50 34.0+26 50 19S0-a14.113.11.7 × 1vF, S, R, bMUGC 11364, MCG 4-44-19, CGCG 143-27
NGC 671318 50 44.2+33 57 37S014.713.70.4 × 0.3vF, S, R, bMUGC 11365, CGCG 201-38, KAZ 497, IRAS 18489+3353
NGC 674019 00 50.5+28 46 16Sb14.713.90.9 × 0.8eeF, SUGC 11388, MCG 5-45-1, IRAS 18587+2841
NGC 6745 119 01 41.6+40 44 45Sm14.513.91.3 × 0.5vF, lE nsUGC 11391, CGCG 229-13, IRAS 19000+4040, v peculiar
NGC 6745 219 01 41.9+40 45 33S13.312.50.4 × 0.2vF, lE nsUGC 11391, CGCG 229-13, IRAS 19000+4040
NGC 679219 20 57.3+43 07 56SBb12.912.12.2 × 1.3F, E 26°, glbM, * 9.5 sfUGC 11429, MCG 7-40-2, CGCG 230-5, IRAS 19193+4302
IC 128818 29 22.5+39 42 50SBa14.313.41.1 × 0.7vF, S, lE, 3 st nrUGC 11256, MCG 7-38-7, CGCG 228-9, IRAS 18276+3940
IC 128918 30 02.2+39 57 53S15.815.00.7 × 0.3eeF, pS, lE, 3 st nrMCG 7-38-9, CGCG 228-11
IC 129618 53 18.8+33 03 59SBbc14.814.01.1 × 0.8eF, pS, iR, 4' np M 57UGC 11374, MCG 6-41-22, CGCG 201-40, near M 57
IC 477218 39 56.4+40 01 37C14.913.90.4 × 0.3eF, eS, 6685 f 2s, 2'.7 sMCG 7-38-14, CGCG 228-20, NPM1G +39.0491

References

7«Der grosse Kosmos-Himmelsführer» von Ian Ridpath und Wil Tirion; Kosmos Verlag; ISBN 3-440-05787-9
9«Drehbare Sternkarte SIRIUS» von H. Suter-Haug; Hallwag-Verlag, Bern
15«Hartung's Astronomical Objects for Southern Telescopes» by David Malin and David J. Frew; Melbourne University Press 1995; ISBN 0-522-84553-3
20«Sternbilder und ihre Mythen» von Gerhard Fasching; Zweite, verbesserte Auflage; Springer Verlag Wien, New York; ISBN 3-211-82552-5 (Wien); ISBN 0-387-82552-5 (New York)
69The Starry Sky: Lyra by Deborah Byrd; Astronomy 6/94, p.51
150IAU: The Constellations, 11. Oktober 2020; iau.org/public/themes/constellations
154Yale Bright Star Catalog, 15. Oktober 2020; tdc-www.harvard.edu/catalogs/bsc5.html
277«Historische Deep-Sky Kataloge» von Dr. Wolfgang Steinicke; klima-luft.de/steinicke (2021-02-17)